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The Who, What, Why and How of the Ongoing Transaction Malleability Attack

Bitcoin Magazine, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

For the past several days*, the Bitcoin network has been plagued by a so-called “transaction malleability attack.” Bitcoin users have experienced a number of annoyances, causing confusion and frustration. And while the transaction malleability issue is well-known and has plagued the Bitcoin network before, to many it is still unclear what it is, why it is a problem, who is causing the attack right now, and what can be done about it.

*According to the claimed attacker (see below), the attack is currently paused at the time of writing, but could and probably will be continued at any time.

What is transaction malleability?

In order to understand the transaction malleability attack, it helps to first understand the basics of how Bitcoin transactions work. In simplified form, each transaction over the Bitcoin network consists of different types of data. This includes transaction inputs (refering to the addresses bitcoin come from), transaction outputs (refering to the addresses bitcoin are sent to), the amount of bitcoin sent, and more. All of this data is cryptographically signed, combined, and scrambled (“hashed”) into a unique and smaller piece of data: a hash. This hash is essentially the transaction ID. If a miner confirms the transaction, the transaction ID is included in a block and stored in the blockchain.

The problem that enables transaction malleability, however, is that effectively identical signatures can result in completely different hashes. The specifics of this are deeply cryptographic, and are very hard – if not impossible – to explain in plain English. But as one extremely simplified example to get an idea of the problem, a comparison would be that the numbers “145” and “0145” are effectively the same number in many cases. But when hashed, “145” and “0145” might actually produce completely different results.

In the case of the ongoing transaction malleability attack, the attacker picks transactions from the Bitcoin network, and tweaks signature data. As a result, all sorts of transactions have two completely different transaction IDs circulating on the Bitcoin network. And since a specific transaction can confirm only once, just one of the transaction IDs will be included in a block, while the other will be ignored.

Are transaction malleability attacks a problem?

The essence of the transaction malleability problem arises when someone uses the transaction ID – and nothing but the transaction ID – to check whether a transaction has been included in a block. This is a problem, of course, because the transaction ID may have been changed by the attacker, and his new transaction ID could have been included in the block rather than the original transaction ID. It might then seem as if the transaction itself never went through – though it effectively did.

This can be problematic for several reasons.

For one, it complicates writing wallet software. This is a problem in particular for Bitcoin companies that use their own software, which several of the bigger businesses in the space do.

The best-known and most infamous example of such a company would be Mt. Gox, the world's first bitcoin exchange that spectacularly failed in 2014 as it claimed to have lost most of its customers’ funds. Mt. Gox claimed it lost this money because it fell victim to a long-lasting malleability attack, which messed up its bookkeeping. With it seeming as if transactions never confirmed, users are said to have been able to withdraw more bitcoin than they owned. Whether this is really why Mt. Gox lost so much of its customers bitcoin remains unclear, but it could – at least theoretically – be true.

This is an extreme example, as Mt. Gox asserts to have automatically re-sent bitcoin merely based on the transaction IDs – not a smart thing to do. But transaction malleability could complicate matters for Bitcoin companies with a more sensible payout policy, too. If they, like Mt. Gox, run software that keeps track of transaction IDs for bookkeeping, the transaction malleability attack could severely damage their records. Even if they do not automatically resend transactions, and, as such, don’t lose any, it’s still a nuisance.

A less urgent but potentially bigger problem is that transaction malleability impedes on chained transactions. Chained transactions are transactions that use an unconfirmed output as its own input, or in other words: They spend bitcoin balances that have not been confirmed yet. But if they spend transactions of which the transaction IDs are changed, they – and all subsequent chained transactions – become invalid all at once.

Chained transactions come in a lot of shapes and forms. The most common might be bitcoin spent from change addresses. But chain transactions also form the basis of more fancy bitcoin use cases, such as payment channels. Indeed, the transaction malleability issue is one of the reasons advanced scaling solutions such as the Lightning Network are not quite ready to be deployed yet.

It bears noting, however, that transaction malleability is no existential problem for Bitcoin. Only the transactions IDs can be changed, not the transactions themselves; no one can steal funds from anyone else, and no one can reverse or block transactions. Moreover, the current transaction malleability attack doesn’t really make the deeper problems with transaction malleability worse. These risks would have existed with or without the current attack.

Why is the Bitcoin network being attacked?

A short answer would be that it's hard to know for sure, as it is hard to determine who is carrying out the attack – let alone why.

Bitcointalk.org user “amaclin,” however, has claimed to be behind the attack. Amaclin, who is probably Russian (or at least speaks Russian), announced his involvement in the malleability attack shortly after it was first noticed on October 1.

Amaclin says he has carried out the attack, essentially, out of boredom. Additionally, amaclin argues that Bitcoin is fundamentally broken. He specifically points out that the incentive structures of Bitcoin’s development process do not align well, as users are not incentivized to reward developers for their work building and maintaining Bitcoin. By attacking the network, amaclin believes he is revealing that only a small number of developers can fix the issue, while most Bitcoin users expect them to do so for free. That is an unsustainable proposition, amaclin says.

Amaclin claims that he is not attacking the network in order to gain financially in any way. He also denies attacking any specific business in order to defraud them or otherwise. He has, however, posted two donation addresses in his forum signature: One is labeled a vote for the attack, while the other is labeled a vote against. At the time of writing, both addresses have had one transaction sent to them, adding up to 300 bits, worth less than 10 cents in total.

Whether amaclin is telling the truth is hard to verify. But the fact that he could be telling the truth, the fact that a networkwide attack on the Bitcoin network could be carried out by a bored individual with some coding skills, is probably quite telling in itself.

Can the problem be solved?

The good news is that the transaction malleability issue could likely be solved eventually. BIP 62 (Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 62) in particular is intended to prevent malleability attacks by narrowing down the types of data that can be included in Bitcoin transactions. BIP 62 could be implemented as a soft fork, which means that it would then be up to miners to adopt the changes.

The bad news is that the issue is still pretty far from actually being solved. The transaction malleability problem is quite complicated, and some solutions might create other – even bigger – problems for the Bitcoin network. BIP 62 currently is still in draft stage, and not ready to be implemented in Bitcoin Core yet. Moreover, it is far from clear that BIP 62 does or even can tackle all possible malleability issues. It is possible that additional exploits have not yet been found, and have, therefore, not yet been countered by proposals included in BIP 62.

While fixing the malleability issue is widely considered to be a problem that needs solving, it might take a while before a definite solution is ready – if one ever is. For the foreseeable future, wallet software will have to tackle the problem using workarounds.

Thanks to Bitcoin Core developer Peter Todd and Bitonic CEO Jouke Hofman for providing feedback.

The post The Who, What, Why and How of the Ongoing Transaction Malleability Attack appeared first on Bitcoin Magazine.

Future of United States to 2025

Forbes, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

Ten years ago, the iPhone had yet to be introduced. Fast forward to today and this device’s dramatic ripple effects in the US and abroad have ranged from upending the taxi industry by enabling Uber to dramatically altering the future of the US logistics industry via growth of online shopping. With the United States’ endless ability to reinvent itself and seize opportunities of the future, despite the challenges it faces, the next 10 years can be expected to usher in even more dramatic changes. While many companies have a deep understanding of their own industry and adjacent industries, many industries (such as the taxi industry) have failed to foresee how divergent trends will converge to disrupt them. As company leadership looks forward to the next 10 years, how many understand the mega trends that are fundamentally transforming the way that Americans will live, work, and do business?   Frost & Sullivan’s comprehensive new project, led by a new study “The Future of the United States”, looks at the dramatic changes the country will undergo through 2025, and the effects this will have on American businesses.

Bitcoin Businesses Meet with US Congressman Jared Polis to Find Common Ground

Bitcoin Magazine, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

Congressman Polis Bridges Gap Between Bitcoin Companies and Capitol Hill

U.S. Congressman Jared Polis took time out from his busy campaign schedule recently to meet with representatives, including CEOs, from nine digital currencies companies including itBit and Blockchain.

Organized by the Washington, D.C.-based advocacy and education group Coin Center, the roundtable was an attempt to bridge the gap between the world of Washington and Congress and the world of fintech and digital currencies.

Coin Center Executive Director Jerry Brito, who chaired the meeting, was happy with the outcome and told Bitcoin Magazine:

"We visit policymakers in D.C. often to talk about these issues, but there's no substitute for having them come out and meet the actual innovators who are building these great companies and technologies. I think Rep. Polis learned a lot about what these companies do and the regulatory issues they're facing, and they learned a bit more about what it takes to move policy in government."

Rep. Polis is an acknowledged “thought leader” for the digital currency movement and has made a name for himself in the community with his ongoing support for Bitcoin.

Polis was one of the first to take advantage of a Federal Election Commission ruling that political candidates can now accept donations in bitcoin and has “Now Accepting Bitcoin!” on his website.


CEOs from nine digital currencies businesses meet with Rep. Jared Polis to find common ground

"It was a very productive meeting. Polis really 'gets' digital currencies.

He has tech DNA, something that is still too rare in D.C.," Blockchain’s Marco Santori, who attended the meeting, told Bitcoin Magazine.

"Encouragingly, whenever the small group of entrepreneurs and policy experts in the meeting would register generalized grievances, Polis would respond with very specific proposed solutions," Santori said. "I think this kind of meeting will lead to improvements for digital currencies companies in the future."

It’s an election year in the U.S., and Rep. Polis is seeking re-election in Colorado’s 2ndDistrict, but he wants to get started immediately making sure that digital currencies startups are being served by government and not strangled by regulatory red tape.

“We have a policymaker who is genuinely excited about this technology taking the time to meet with the community at the forefront of making it successful," said Brito. "The idea of a U.S. representative taking Bitcoin so seriously was laughable as little as a few years ago. This meeting shows just how quickly it is growing toward the mainstream.

“It's a major indicator of the technology's growing significance that such a meeting took place to begin with. The technology has grown and its industry has become mainstream to the point where congressmen are meeting with leaders from it.”


Congressman Jared Polis and Coin Center Executive Director Jerry Brito meet with representatives from the digital currencies community.

Rep. Polis’s interest in digital currencies comes from a lifelong passion for technology and the Internet.

While in college, Polis started his first tech company, American Information Systems, and in 2006 founded Techstars, a Colorado-based startup accelerator.

“Rep. Polis has been an engaged and vocal supporter of Bitcoin innovation for some time now. This event gives him and the people building on this technology an opportunity to meet, exchange ideas, and learn from each other,” added Brito.

Companies that met with Congressman Polis included AlphaPoint, Blockchain, Case, Chain Code, Digital Currency Group, itBit, Onename, SolidX Partners Inc., and Union Square Ventures.

The post Bitcoin Businesses Meet with US Congressman Jared Polis to Find Common Ground appeared first on Bitcoin Magazine.

Lionsgate Announces 25% Off For Online Bitcoin Purchases

CryptoCoins News, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

Lionsgate is offering 25% off select 2015 hit movies and TV shows with purchases using  only bitcoin on its online store, LionsgateShop.com. Lionsgate has partnered with GoCoin to integrate bitcoin payments into select consumer sales operations. Lionsgate will accept bitcoin for DVD and Blu-ray discs at LionsgateShop.com. Lionsgate is also exploring other opportunities to integrate bitcoins and its the blockchain into its merchandising and sales operations. More Choice For Consumers "Whether they pay in dollars, francs or bitcoins, people are spending more money to watch content across more distribution platforms than ever before, and our goal is to offer them […]

The post Lionsgate Announces 25% Off For Online Bitcoin Purchases appeared first on CCN: Financial Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency News.

Bitcoin CFD Trading Platform Bit4x Launches New Clients Account Manager and Generous Referral Program

CryptoCoins News, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

Bitcoin Press Release: Bit4X.com, the first bitcoin-based ECN broker, has announced the launch of their new client backend system and a very generous referral program. Roseau, Dominica – October 7th, 2015 Bit4x.com’s new client backend system allows clients to fully manage their demo and live accounts. Traders can check their open orders and balances, manage deposits, withdrawals, set trading account leverage and more – all from one central location. First launched in 2012, Bit4X’s innovative platform allows users to trade a diverse selection of high liquidity spot FX and CFD markets with Bitcoin. Liquid mainstream global markets including Forex, Commodities, […]

The post Bitcoin CFD Trading Platform Bit4x Launches New Clients Account Manager and Generous Referral Program appeared first on CCN: Financial Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency News.

Are Bitcoiners Sexist?

CryptoCoins News, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

There has been a lot of talk about the demographic dominance of men in Bitcoin. Critics of the culture point to numerous posts on popular Bitcoin forums like this one, this one, this one or this one. While I think it’s important to not give people on forums too much credit as an accurate reflection of humanity, it is of course disturbing that, when a woman makes a post on popular forum BitcoinTalk, she can be greeted with “TITS or GTFO.” You can look at the speaker lists of most Bitcoin conferences, and there are more men than women. The […]

The post Are Bitcoiners Sexist? appeared first on CCN: Financial Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency News.

This Company Said They'd Import Daraprim From Brazil For $10 Then Vanished

CryptoCoins News, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

Daraprim has become a popular pharmaceutical medication in recent weeks thanks to Martin Shkreli’s decision to increase the price of the drug from $13.50 to $750.  The medicine is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines. The drug was originally developed to combat malaria and has been available since 1953. The market for the medicine is so small that no generic manufacturer has started making it. Shkreli, an American hedge fund manager, and entrepreneur, is the founder of Turing Pharmaceuticals AG. He ultimately announced the price of the drug his firm bought the marketing rights for would be […]

The post This Company Said They'd Import Daraprim From Brazil For $10 Then Vanished appeared first on CCN: Financial Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency News.

Thailand's gamers fight to save the open internet

Engadget, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

Thailand's military junta has already banned Facebook, Bitcoin and the game Tropico, but that's not enough for the censor-happy dictatorship. The nation is now kicking around the idea of a single gateway -- effectively one internet connection betwe...

Peter Todd: SPV Client Majority Could Lead to Miner Malfeasance

CryptoCoins News, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

  The Simplified Payment Verification protocol was envisioned by Satoshi Nakamoto in the Bitcoin white paper. He also mentioned it later on, saying that he figured the future would involve most people using such things. I anticipate there will never be more than 100K nodes, probably less. It will reach an equilibrium where it's not worth it for more nodes to join in. The rest will be lightweight clients, which could be millions. If you're not familiar with what an SPV client is, it's a Bitcoin wallet like Electrum, which connects to a server and trusts it, rather downloading its […]

The post Peter Todd: SPV Client Majority Could Lead to Miner Malfeasance appeared first on CCN: Financial Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency News.

42 Coin Hits 48 Coins

CryptoCoins News, 1/1/0001 12:00 AM PST

Months ago, Woodcoin founder “Funkenstein the Dwarf” noticed something was awry with the 42 Coin project. When reviewing the code, he saw that there was nothing, actually, stopping the coin supply from exceeding the apparently magic number of 42. He wrote about it, saying: The function "getBlockValue" determines the coinbase reward and hence the money supply. What I saw surprised me: the reward was set to be 0.00042 per block, forever. In other words, no limited supply. No cap at 42! The next thing to do, for anyone who can read and write code, is to create a patch and […]

The post 42 Coin Hits 48 Coins appeared first on CCN: Financial Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency News.

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